Anthropology

Department of Anthropology

College of Arts and Sciences
380 Millard Fillmore Academic Center
Ellicott Complex
North Campus
Buffalo, NY 14261-0026

Phone: 716.645.2414
Fax: 716.645.3808
Web: wings.buffalo.edu/anthropology

Donald Pollock
Chair

Phillips Stevens
Director of Undergraduate Studies

About the Program

Anthropology combines the biological, historical, and social sciences in a unique study of humankind. It is the only discipline that examines and attempts to understand humankind as a whole. The undergraduate program includes the subfields of archaeology, cultural anthropology, and physical anthropology. Students should specialize in one of these subdisciplines.

Archaeology studies the historical development of human cultures by analyzing cultural remains. Cultural anthropology studies the innate, shared, and transmitted products of social groups; its approach is descriptive, historical, and comparative. Physical anthropology studies the origins, adaptations, and evolution of our own species and our primate relatives.

Degree Options

Students have the option of specializing in one of the three subfields. Detailed descriptive materials concerning departmental programs, as well as information regarding job opportunities, are available in the departmental office.

The department offers a premedical/predental concentration, which may be used in preparation for application to those professional schools.

Joint Majors. The anthropology department encourages students to propose joint majors with other departments offering B.A. degrees in the arts and sciences. The joint major is an opportunity for students to develop an individualized degree program spanning two departments, while taking a smaller number of total credits than a dual major would require. Joint majors take the same basic courses as other majors, except that they need to complete no fewer than five elective courses in anthropology, including at least one area study and one theoretical elective. Courses chosen must be appropriate to the overall proposal for the joint major. Interested students should propose this program of study in consultation with their anthropology advisor.

Advisement

To be admitted as a major, students must complete an application to the major, in person. Upon admission to the department, students are assigned an advisor based upon their interests and plans. They devise a plan of study in consultation with the advisor and continue to discuss the development of their major by meeting with their advisor at least once per semester. Likewise, students pursuing minors meet with their advisors at least once per semester to discuss their progress. Students may choose to concentrate in one of the subdisciplines or construct a major that reflects a unifying theme or perspective that crosses subdisciplinary boundaries.

It is the students� responsibility to plan their programs carefully with their advisors and to understand applicable expectations and deadlines, and to meet with their advisors at least once each semester to be sure their programs are on track. Last-minute requests for variances, waivers, or extensions may not be granted. Advisors may also suggest additional coursework in computer science, geology, geography, linguistics, or another department.

Transfer Policy

Students wishing to transfer into the University at Buffalo must be accepted by the university prior to acceptance by the Department of Anthropology. Criteria for acceptance into the department are the same for transfer students as for UB students.

Evaluation of courses taken at another school for departmental major credit is done by the department. Usually the Student Advising Services advisor, who sees transfer students initially, refers students to the department. Students should bring course descriptions, syllabi, and any other available information that will help the department evaluate anthropology courses for which students are requesting major credit.

Honors, Awards, and Scholarships

Honors status in anthropology is achieved by maintaining a minimum GPA of 3.5 in anthropology and by satisfactorily completing an intensive two-semester research project. The research project requires regular consultation with one or several faculty members. Qualified students wishing to achieve honors in anthropology must first gain consent from the faculty members who will supervise their projects. Interested students must then apply in writing to the department by the end of their junior year, and certainly no later than the end of the course registration period in the first semester of their senior year. Honors students register for 3 credit hours of APY 499 Independent Study each semester of their senior year.

The project is evaluated by the faculty advisor(s) and by the Undergraduate Committee. The decision on whether to award honors is based on the project, grades, and other achievements. If the student has a minimum GPA of 3.75, honors with distinction may be granted.

Note: For students graduating in May, the finished research project must be submitted to the advisor no later than March 15; for students graduating in February, it must be submitted to the advisor no later than November 1.

Opportunities for Undergraduate Research and Practical Experience

The department offers an archaeological field school each summer. This six-week, 6-credit-hour course provides field instruction in archaeological research and site survey and excavation techniques.

Notable Program Features

The undergraduate program in anthropology provides many options for students with specific interests.

The Marian E. White Anthropology Research Museum is an integral part of the department�s research and teaching program. Its primary purpose is to preserve, organize, catalog, and curate archaeological materials gathered by the field school and the Archaeological Survey, by faculty engaged in research, and through donations of collections. There is an extensive non-circulating library. Internships are available in the museum and in the survey.

UB is one of a select group of universities with access to the Human Relations Area Files, a current, comprehensive database of worldwide cultures. This invaluable resource is an important tool in analyzing the wide variety of social features that are present in different cultures. It is also used for research and training in cross-cultural studies.

Anthropology - B.A.

Acceptance Criteria

Minimum GPA of 2.0 overall.
Minimum grade of C- in one of the prerequisite courses.

Advising Note

Minimum grade of �C-� must be earned on all courses taken for major credit.

Prerequisite Courses

One of the following three courses:

APY 106 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
APY 107 Introduction to Physical Anthropology
APY 108 Introduction to Archaeology

Required Courses

APY 106 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (if not taken as the prerequisite)
APY 107 Introduction to Physical Anthropology (if not taken as the prerequisite)
APY 108 Introduction to Archaeology (if not taken as the prerequisite)
APY 410 Senior Seminar
Practicum
Statistics course (choose from list below)
Eight electives (choose from list below), including two area studies courses and two problem/theoretical courses

Summary
Total required credit hours for the major - 39

See Baccalaureate Degree Requirements for general education and remaining university requirements

Recommended Sequence of Program Requirements

FIRST YEAR
Fall�APY 106, APY 107
Spring�APY 108

SECOND YEAR
Fall�One area studies elective course
Spring�One problem/theoretical elective course, one APY elective

THIRD YEAR
Fall�One problem/theoretical elective course, one of the following statistics courses: CEP 207, PSY 207, SOC 294, SSC 225, STA 119
Spring�Practicum, one area studies elective course

FOURTH YEAR
Fall�APY 410, one APY elective
Spring�One APY elective

Electives and Course Groupings

Eight anthropology electives (24 cr) selected through advisement are required, including:

1) Two area studies courses (3 cr each), which include (but are not limited to): APY 239, APY 250*, APY 265, APY 325, APY 330, APY 331, APY 332, APY 333, APY 343, APY 353, APY 361, APY 362, APY 363, APY 364, APY 366, APY 367, APY 369, APY 371, APY 373, APY 382, APY 383, APY 394, APY 402, APY 432, APY 433, APY 437, APY 449, APY 476, APY 482, APY 484

2) Two problem-oriented or theoretical courses (3 cr each), which include (but are not limited to): APY 104, APY 105, APY 120, APY 203, APY 205, APY 209, APY 210, APY 215, APY 217, APY 218, APY 226, APY 245, APY 246, APY 248, APY 253, APY 261*, APY 262, APY 275, APY 276, APY 280*, APY 283, APY 303, APY 310, APY 311, APY 312, APY 315, APY 320, APY 323, APY 324, APY 328, APY 329, APY 335, APY 338, APY 344, APY 345/APY 346, APY 348, APY 350, APY 368, APY 372, APY 374, APY 377, APY 380, APY 384, APY 393, APY 396, APY 401, APY 402, APY 403, APY 404, APY 405, APY 406, APY 408, APY 409, APY 411, APY 412, APY 416, APY 417, APY 427, APY 429, APY 434, APY 435, APY 439, APY 440, APY 441, APY 442, APY 443, APY 447, APY 448, APY 474, APY 475, APY 495, APY 498, APY 499

*Repeatable course: Topics in Anthropology (variable topics).

Anthropology Emphasis Area for Premedical or Predental Students

May be used in preparation for application to those professional schools. Premedical/predental students are encouraged to specialize in the field most interesting to them and in which they can achieve the best academic results. Anthropology majors in the premedical/predental emphasis area must satisfy all regular departmental requirements.

Anthropology - Minor

Required Courses

Students devise plans of study in consultation with their advisors, with a focus in:

GENERAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Minimum of seven courses: APY 106, APY 107, APY 108, and four electives at the 200 level or above, including one area studies course at the 200 level or above

ARCHAEOLOGY
Minimum of six courses: APY 105, APY 108, and four electives, including one area studies course at the 200 level or above

PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Minimum of six courses: APY 105, APY 107, and four electives, including one area studies course at the 200 level or above

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Minimum of six courses: APY 105, APY 106, and four electives, including one area studies course at the 200 level or above

MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Minimum of seven courses: APY 106, APY 107, APY 275, and four electives, including one area studies course at the 200 level or above and three chosen from a list of recommended premedical/predental concentration courses

Course Descriptions

APY 104 Great Sites and Lost Tribes: The Romantic Element in Archaeology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines the romantic element in archaeology in the great sites of the world, such as Troy, Olduvai Gorge, Stonehenge, and so forth. Since the sites cannot be separated from their discoverers and excavators, we also consider the lives of the most famous and romantic archaeologists, including Schliemann, Leakey, and Kenyon.

APY 105 Introduction to Anthropology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Introductory survey of anthropology's major subfields: archaeology, physical anthropology, and cultural anthropology. LEC

APY 106 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Surveys important ideas about culture and society that have shaped cultural anthropology. Studies the principal institutions of culture�language, social organization, religion, economics, politics, artistic expression, etc.�in their traditional ethnographic context and as they change through cultural contact and modernization.

APY 107 Introduction to Physical Anthropology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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For centuries preceding modern times, our uniqueness as a species was taken as a sign of special creation; we were not seen to be a part of nature. But as knowledge of human evolution, our closeness to other primates, and our adaptations to specific environments emerged, we have taken our place in the animal kingdom. Here, we learn how those insights developed, and about current methods of understanding human origins and the natural forces that have shaped us.

APY 108 Introduction to Archaeology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Studies the development of society from the earliest tools to the advent of history, analyzed in terms of spatial and temporal diversity, and as people�s means of adapting to their environment. LEC

APY 120 Environmental Anthropology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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It is clear that our environment appears to not always be kind to us. Whether we are exposed to toxins produced by industry, harsh temperatures or malnutrition, the outcome is often poorer health and shorter life. As a biological/behavioral science, anthropology is in a unique position to explore and expand this knowledge area, and that is what this course covers.

APY 161 Heredity and Society

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines contemporary human genetics relevant to families and society as a whole. Topics include genetic diseases, family planning and demography, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis, genetic engineering, and genetics and the law. LEC

APY 183 Peoples and Culture of Latin America

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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For non-majors. Modern Latin American nations; cultural history; current problems of national development; and future prospects.

APY 203 Anthropology and Film

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Studies culture through the use of visual materials (films, tapes, etc.). Emphasizes learning anthropological concepts, attitudes, and methodologies, with film as the primary medium for so doing. This is a class in anthropology, rather than a �films� course.

APY 205 American Norms and Deviations

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Points out �definitions of the situation� that exclude and oppress some Americans for the apparent benefit of other Americans; explores categories of people (�criminals,� �junkies,� �bums,� �drunks,� and so forth) as realities and as stereotypes, and analyzes their origins in American social history; also clarifies forces that sustain such categorizing.

APY 210 Musics of the World

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Introduces ethnomusicology; considers musical styles in a variety of cultural contexts.

APY 215 Historic Archaeology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Reviews the growth of the unique possibilities of historic archaeology�a growth that suggests that this subdiscipline can provide an important perspective on disciplinary goals, as well as on the history of North American societies.

APY 217 Warfare

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Intended for students who are interested in learning about the forms of armed combat, which occur in small-scale societies, and the causes of such violence. The course content focuses upon the �warfare� of five different societies, and then explores several anthropological theories that address the causes and effects of internal violence and warfare.

APY 218 Men, Women and War

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Focuses on the experiences of men and women in war, both as members of military organizations and as noncombatants. Students learn (1) how martial values are inculcated into a population, particularly the youth; (2) what it is like to be a member of a military organization; (3) about the activities of military organizations in combat, in the treatment of captured enemy, and in peace; and (4) what it is like to be a member of a society at war.

APY 226 Human Adaptation

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines human subsistence and reproductive behavior from an evolutionary perspective. The course consists of five sections: (1) the theory of evolution, natural selection, and adaptation; (2) what our nearest relatives, the two chimpanzee species, can teach us about being human; (3) recent human evolutionary history in the Pliocene and Pleistocene periods; (4) hunter-gatherers; and (5) special issues related to reproduction.

APY 239 Archaeology of New York Colonial History

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Covers the archaeology of New York State, from the first human settlement to the nineteenth century.

APY 245 Survey of the Primates

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Introduces the field of primatology, including primate taxonomy, ecology, and evolution. Uses a variety of visual aids. Encourages primate biology, and visits to the Buffalo Zoo and the Physical Anthropology Laboratory.

APY 246 Introduction to Primate Behavior

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Behavior, and social organization of non-human primates: current theories, evolutionary processes, and research methods, both in the field and in the laboratories.

APY 248 Human Genetics

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines contemporary human genetics relevant to families and society, including genetic diseases, family planning and demography, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis, genetic engineering, and genetics and the law. Provides students with sufficient understanding of contemporary human genetics to intelligently address these issues.

APY 250 Topics in Archaeology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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The content of this course is variable and therefore it is repeatable for credit. The University Grade Repeat Policy does not apply.

Topics vary. May be taken more than once for credit.

APY 261 Topics in Cultural Anthropology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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The content of this course is variable and therefore it is repeatable for credit. The University Grade Repeat Policy does not apply.

Topics vary. May be taken more than once for credit.

APY 262 Anthropology and Justice

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines comparative studies of justice from the perspectives of local and global human problems, including analyses of the causes of conflict and dispute: inequality, poverty, racism, war and aggression, colonialism, sexism, economic exploitation, and so forth. Considers justice in the context of related cultural concepts and values (such as truth and harmony) and in a variety of institutional settings (such as the community, workplace, and nation). In addition, the course investigates aspects of crime, deviance, punishment and rehabilitation, and restitution.

APY 265 People of South East Asia

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines the history and culture of both mainland and island Southeast Asia, emphasizing kinship, religion, and political systems, as well as art forms.

APY 275 Introduction to Medical Anthropology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Uses an ecological and cultural perspective to study human disease, stress, and adaptation. Topics covered include the ecology and epidemiology of disease; genetic, physiological, and cultural adaptation; nutrition; stress; culture change; and health repercussions of economic development and modernization. While the course is more ecological than ethnomedical, there are supplementary readings and films on ethnomedical use of hallucinogens and altered states of consciousness, as well as cooperation between indigenous healers and biomedically trained personnel.

APY 276 Introduction to Ethnomedicine

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Cross-cultural survey of beliefs and practices relating to health, illness, and treatment. Emphasizes understanding the cultural and social foundations of ethnomedical systems, including ethnomedical systems in the United States. Examines contemporary biomedicine as a cultural system.

APY 280 Topics in Physical Anthropology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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The content of this course is variable and therefore it is repeatable for credit. The University Grade Repeat Policy does not apply.

Topics vary. May be taken more than once for credit.

APY 283 Peasant Societies and Cultures

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Introduces anthropological thought on peasants and peasantries in complex society, including the nature of peasant communities, relations between peasants and non-peasants, agrarian/peasant movements, and depeasantization.

APY 302 Ancient Art and Cities of Central America and Yucatan

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Involves field exploration of some of the most important cities of the ancient Maya. Together with the instructor, students visit the vast and mysterious ruins of ancient Maya: Tikal, Iximich� (Guatemala), Copan (Honduras), Tulum, Cob�, Chich�n Itz�, Uxmal, Labn�, Kab�h, Sayil, Dzibilchalt�n, and Edzn� (Mexico). Students meet and discuss recent investigations at these sites with Mexican and North American archaeologists who work in the Maya area. Important museums in Guatemala and M�rida are also visited, along with contemporary Maya communities. The overseas portion of this course lasts approximately two weeks and is conducted in January, before the beginning of spring semester.

APY 303 Physical Research

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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A first-level step-by-step introduction to research, which involves coming up with a question, background reading, methods design, data collection, and data analysis. The course is open to anyone with an interest in learning how to do research. Fulfills the practicum requirement for anthropology majors.

APY 309 Social Organization of Animals

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Studies systems of social organization throughout the animal kingdom; general principles of social behavior that may have relevance to humans.

APY 310 Early Social Development: Biological Bases

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Involves an overview of ways research on the social development of animals contributes to current approaches to the study of early human social development.

APY 311 Culture and Personality

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Social scientific, psychological, and psychiatric materials on normal and abnormal behavior in a variety of cultural settings; social and cultural change and personality; group functioning; forms of deviancy.

APY 312 Culture and Reproduction

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Involves a cross-cultural and cross-national survey of human reproduction. Patterns of fertility regulation, pregnancy, birth, and early infant care.

APY 315 Cross-Cultural Study of Women

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Examines political, economic, and social systems of various non-Western societies in relationship to the roles women take as reproducers of cultural values or as activists working for change.

APY 320 Seminar in Cognitive Anthropology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  specific prior work in anthropology not assumed, but background in anthropology, psychology, linguistics, sociology, or similar fields is necessary
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Examines human thinking as a cultural and social, as well as a psychological (or computational), phenomenon. Regards cognition as closely interconnected with cultural forms, social systems, and everyday activities. The course also addresses the very concept of �cognition� as a cultural product whose social and historical origins require investigation.

APY 321 Special Topics in Cultural Anthropology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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The content of this course is variable and therefore it is repeatable for credit. The University Grade Repeat Policy does not apply.

Speical topics in cultural anthropology. May be taken more than once for credit.

APY 323 Anthropology and Education

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines cultural transmission procedures in different cultures from the point of view of anthropology. Thus, the course concerns the educative process (enculturation) at different points in the life cycle of an individual and in different social contexts. Brings anthropological methodology and content to bear on the subject matter, including analyses of American schooling. Probes various issues in education, as relevant.

APY 324 Approaches to the Study of Religion

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  APY 106
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Introduces different approaches to the study of religion, their main contributions and shortcomings, and the debates within the study of religion. Students become familiar with contemporary issues in the study of religion and apply theory with critical awareness in the analysis of religious phenomena.

APY 325 Contemporary Afro-Caribbean Religion

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Familiarizes students with the rich cultural syncretisms of Afro-Caribbean culture from a Latin American perspective, challenges the miasma of mysticism surrounding the religions as viewed by developed nations, and provides students with the basic skills necessary to conduct field research from an anthropological perspective.

APY 328 Biology Society & Culture

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Explores how humans sustain themselves in difficult conditions. Their successes or failures depend on a skein of biological variables and on behaviors, which must make the best of those raw materials. Though our well-being rests on some hereditary biological features, such as pigmentation (in which behavior has little role), or on nongenetic patterns, such as social support networks, most �adaptation� employs some mix of the two. For instance, population regulation has both social and biological controls. This course focuses on issues that are genuinely �biobehavioral,� and is presented primarily in lecture format, strongly supplemented by in-class laboratory exercises on measurement of human variation, demographic assessment, growth, body composition, and blood pressure�all central topics in adaptive human biology.

APY 330 Prehistory of Europe

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines European prehistory from the Paleolithic period through the formation of the earliest states in Europe.

APY 331 Archaeology of New World

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines prehistoric development of Indian cultures in North and South America, from the initial aboriginal occupation of the Americas.

APY 332 Archaeology of the American Southwest

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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The American Southwest, a striking arid land, is rich in archaeological remains of mammoth hunters, cave dwellers, and Pueblo Indians. Reviews the evidence concerning those ancient people and their migrations, invasions, droughts, and abandonments. Also discusses field and laboratory techniques.

APY 333 North American Archaeology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Studies the peopling of the continent, landscape evolution, origins and spread of agriculture, and the rise of chiefly forms of social organization. Also examines Meso-American influences, and the effects of European conquest.

APY 338 Field Research Archaeology

Credits:  6 - 8
Semester:
Prerequisites:  permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LAB

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Six weeks. Open to undergraduate and graduate students. May be taken more than once for credit. Contact the department for further information.

Archaeological research participation; includes techniques of site survey and excavation.

APY 344 Animal Communication

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Surveys natural communication systems within the animal kingdom, including the structure, functions, development, and evolution of natural communication systems among both human and non-human animals.

APY 345 Comparative Primate Anatomy

Credits:  3
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Studies descriptive and functional primate anatomy, with relevance to the origin and adaptation of groups within the order of primates.

APY 346 Dissections in Comparative Primate Anatomy

Credits:  2
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LAB

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Students register for lab of their choice and are automatically registered for APY 345.

Covers basic primate gross anatomy learned by dissecting and making comparative observations of various species of primates.

APY 348 Forensic Anthropological Osteology

Credits:  3
Semester: F
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC/LAB

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Covers fundamentals of human skeletal anatomy through lecture, demonstration, and laboratory work. Considers procedures and applications in contemporary and historical human biology and in archaeology, stressing both technical approach and theoretical application. This lecture and laboratory course demonstrates the fundamentals of human skeletal biology and anatomy. Stresses procedures and applications used in evaluating archaeological and contemporary human populations. Considers forensic applications.

APY 350 Human Behavioral Ecology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  introductory anthropology course; introductory biology course recommended
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines subsistence and social behaviors from an evolutionary perspective. Discusses how ecological variation patterns affect behavioral variability between and within human populations. The course appeals to students in human ecology, cultural anthropology, archaeology, primatology, and human paleontology.

APY 353 Old World Prehistory

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Studies the archaeology of Africa, Asia, and Europe, from the Paleolithic period through the appearance of the earliest civilizations.

APY 361 Anthropology of the Middle East

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines Middle Eastern society from a cultural perspective. Topics include kinship, gender, popular and orthodox Islam, nationalism, mass media, urbanization, and historical relations with the West.

APY 362 People and Culture of Japan

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines the development of Japanese culture patterns, their relationship to the Asian mainland, and changes of traditional patterns accompanying modernization.

APY 363 Cultural History of Oceania

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Involves an archaeological and ethnographic survey of Oceania, emphasizing Polynesia; also examines a critical review of trans-Pacific migration theories.

APY 364 Peoples of Eastern Asia

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Deals with the peoples of East and Southeast Asia (though not northeastern peoples such as the Japanese or Koreans). Focuses mainly on Southeast Asia, especially Malaysia, and on social structure, ecology, and literature.

APY 366 Peoples of Asia

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Provides students with an anthropological introduction to the early periods of Chinese and Indian civilizations through lectures, audiovisual materials, and discussion. Compares these cultures with the West in terms of religious ideas, archaeological materials, political forms, family systems, and basic values.

APY 367 Meso-American Archaeology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines art, iconography, architectures, and archaeology of ancient Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize; also covers religious, political, and economic development from its beginning, around 2000 B.C.E., to its decapitation by the Spaniards in 1521.

APY 368 Theories in Archaeology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Introduces archaeological theory and methods; including the proper design of archaeological research projects, data analysis, and interpretation of results.

APY 369 Peoples and Cultures of Sub-Saharan Africa

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Explores cultures of hunting, pastoral, and agricultural societies, including history, social structure, political and economic systems, religion, and aesthetics. Also considers the impact of colonialism, industrialization, urbanism, and political independence upon African societies and cultures.

APY 371 African American Culture

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Analyzes societies and groups in the Western Hemisphere derived from Africa; covers transplanted and emergent institutions, religions and aesthetics, and the role of African Americans in broader regional and national societies in the Americas.

APY 372 Maritime Anthropology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Investigates maritime orientations and adaptations in human societies past and present. We look at the symbolic, cognitive, technological, and ecological aspects of maritime orientations using materials from ethnography, archaeology, history, and literature.

APY 373 Indians of North America

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines native North American cultures, inclyding contact history, impact of political relations with Euro-Americans, and contemporary realities. Also studies revitalization movements, pantribalism, and land claims actions.

APY 374 Anthropology and Health Careers

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Reviews anthropological concepts and methods for students preparing for community service careers and health professions; also applies anthropological methods to contemporary health concerns of North America.

APY 377 Magic, Witchcraft and Sorcery

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  junior/senior standing
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Understanding the nature of magic and the anthropology of sorcery and witchcraft beliefs around the world and throughout history offers insights into some fundamental aspects of human belief and behavior. Considers �primitive� beliefs as representative of universal beliefs and as background to the course�s consideration of �occult� interests and fears in contemporary America.

APY 380 Myth, Ritual, Symbolism

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Explores the ethnography of symbolic form and process in myth and ritual. Also examines metaphor and the problem of meaning in the structuralist, dramatistic, hermeneutic, and semantic approaches of Claude Levi-Strauss, Victor Turner, Clifford Geertz, Edmund Leach, and others.

APY 382 Indians of South America

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Surveys the indigenous societies of cultures and South America, including both highland Andean and lowland Amazonian people. Provides a perspective on the prehistory, history, and contemporary situation of native South Americans, examining traditional anthropological topics as well as current political issues surrounding indigenous rights, integration into national societies, and environmental destruction.

APY 383 South American Workers and Peasants

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Explores the development of modern Latin American culture, from aboriginal southeast European and African roots; gives attention to community studies and other approaches to the study of contemporary people.

APY 393 Anthropology of Religion

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Compares religious beliefs, rituals, and organization; also considers relationships of religion to other aspects of culture and society, and religion as a dynamic system.

APY 394 Religion and Healing in Native South America

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Surveys the contemporary religions and healing practices of Native South Americans through the ethnographies of a variety of South American groups. Explores Native South American concepts of time, space, power, order, destruction, and renewal and their manifestations in birth, initiation, healing, and death rituals. Attempts to understand different worldviews and practices that help us rethink our way of conceiving the world and our role in it.

APY 396 Methods in Urban Anthropology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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For those with some background in anthropology and, particularly, urban anthropology. Involves research projects formulated, planned, and carried out in the Buffalo area. LEC

APY 401 History of Anthropology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Reviews the growth of anthropology as a scientific discipline. Analyzes in detail major anthropological approaches and theories.

APY 402 Modern Europe: Anthropological Perspectives

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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In recent decades, Europe has become a major area of investigation for cultural anthropologists. In this seminar, we ask both what an anthropological perspective can contribute to our understanding of European peoples and also what a consideration of European peoples can contribute to anthropological theory and method. Europe is not the kind of place traditionally associated with anthropology; it is not �non-Western,� it is not �nondeveloped,� it is not �nonliterate,� it is most certainly not �without history,� and perhaps most significantly, it is not the exclusive investigatory turf of anthropologists. The course focuses on issues of identity, history, and power as these shape and are shaped by social forms and local practices.

APY 403 Comparing Cultures Worldwide

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Studies various comparative methods in detail, including the cross-cultural survey method. Students learn to derive and test hypotheses using both large and small samples of cultures drawn from the Human Relations Area Files.

APY 404 Designing Material Culture

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Seminar in interpreting the form of material culture. Acquaints students with some forms of inferences used in analyses of material culture, familiarizes them with some questions addressed through analyses of material form, and provides them with an opportunity to design and implement an analysis of an artifact form.

APY 406 Advanced Social and Cultural Theory

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Considers both traditional and new methodological approaches to the diachronic and synchronic analyses of societies and cultures. For majors planning graduate study in anthropology.

APY 407 Ethnographic Description Methods

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Considers both traditional and new methodological approaches to the diachronic and synchronic analysis of societies and cultures.

APY 408 Ethnographic Field Methods

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  TUT

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Traditional and new methodological approaches to the diachronic and synchronic analysis of societies and cultures.

APY 409 Primate Social Behavior

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines systems of social organization among primates; also studies general principles of social behavior that may have relevance to humans.

APY 411 Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Studies the four horsemen in all their guises. Examines their importance historically and at present. They have been and are religious icons, symbols of the major processes of warfare, disease, famine, and death, as well as cultural, literary, and artistic symbols throughout the generations. The course traces one of the horsemen through both time and space in the intellectual area of the students� choice.

APY 412 Culture and Astronomy

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Involves a cross-cultural and historical examination of a variety of astronomies focusing on practices and empirical realities. Compares in detail Medieval Western astronomy, Mayan calendrical astronomy, and Pacific Islanders� navigational astronomy. Students participate in an in-class workshop dealing with an artifact from each of these systems, and research, report, and write on these and other astronomical systems. Students have the opportunity to use computer-based planetarium programs to simulate the sky at other times and places.

APY 414 Museum Management

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Introduces practical applications of museum management in conjunction with assigned readings. Areas of study include current issues in collection management procedures such as collections development, national and international law relating to the protection of cultural property, registration methods, conservation, exhibit preparation, and the role of new technologies used within museums and galleries.

APY 416 Human Evolutionary Ecology I: Reproduction

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Examines human reproductive and social behaviors from an evolutionary and ecological perspective. Discusses patterns of behavioral variability between and within human populations. Topics include sexual selection, mate choice, life history theory, parenting, and sexual coercion. For students interested in human ecology, cultural anthropology, archaeology, primatology, and human paleontology. One of a sequence that includes APY 417, although students can take one seminar without having taken the other.

APY 417 Human Evolutionary Ecology II: Subsistence

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Examines human subsistence behavior from an evolutionary and ecological perspective. Discussion focuses on patterns of behavioral variability between and within human populations. Topics include issues of reciprocity, foraging theory, the sexual division of labor, and evolutionary economics. Designed for students interested in human ecology, cultural anthropology, archaeology, primatology, and human paleontology. Seminar is designed to be one of a sequence that includes APY 416, although students can take one seminar without having taken the other.

APY 427 Comparative Urbanism

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Considers the origin of the city, starting with Mesopotamia. Defines urban and civilization, examines the urban environment, and compares the archaeological city to the modern city.

APY 429 Anthropology of Architecture

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines the material culture of eastern North America from 1620 to the present. Focuses on the house and its contents as a means by which the settlers of the North American continent adapted to their environment. Uses a developmental perspective to organize the materials.

APY 432 Peoples of the Arctic and Subarctic

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Anthropological survey of arctic and subarctic populations, primarily focusing on Canada and Alaska, with some comparative coverage of Greenland, Siberia, and the Lapps of northern Europe. Develops multidisciplinary models using ethnographic, historical, and epidemiological sources to analyze traditional patterns and contemporary changes in northern communities. A variety of ecological and cultural systems have emerged in the North since the period of contact and settlement by Europeans, and the course encourages students to do comparative analyses of national, regional, and ethnic differences and similarities.

APY 433 Archaeology of Eastern North America

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Traces the variety of Native American cultures developmentally and regionally from the earliest occupation through the early historic period.

APY 434 Approaches to Archaeology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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The content of this course is variable and therefore it is repeatable for credit. The University Grade Repeat Policy does not apply.

Surveys the literature to identify the strategies and techniques of gathering and analyzing information in archaeology.

APY 435 Archaeological Techniques

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Skills course emphasizing the use of photography and drawing, both in the field and in illustrating site reports. Intended primarily for students with an archaeological career orientation, the course deals with factors in the preparation of art manuscripts: draftsmanship, work on drawings, maps, and plans, including line work and photography. Also considers artifact drawing, and processes of printing and production.

APY 439 Laboratory Techniques in Archaeology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Involves individual instruction and guidance in the study of artifacts through lab projects.

APY 440 History of Archaeology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Summarizes the history of archaeology, beginning with its classical and European antecedents. Examines the major trends of seventeenth- through twentieth-century archaeology. Explores major archaeologists and sites, emphasizing the New World. Relates history of archaeology to history of science.

APY 441 Anthropological Demography

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Examines the development and demographic characteristics of human populations in the prehistoric and ethnographic record.

APY 442 Work Anthropology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Work is important because it produces the goods and services that make our lives possible, including raising children, growing food, producing knowledge and meaning, and making things. Nothing we strive to understand is more important, and this is one of those areas of research that is intuitively understood by those we study. Considers how work output is measured, work as it relates to illness, physical work capacity, fertility, food, and behavior. Course format is mixed lecture, laboratory, and seminar.

APY 443 Advanced Physical Anthropology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Topics vary. May be taken more than once for credit.

APY 448 Human Genetics/Legal and Ethical Issues

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  APY 248 or permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Recent advances in genetic technology have presented the scientific and lay communities with ethical and legal problems yet to be resolved. Provides an opportunity for informed discussions of such issues relating to contemporary human/medical genetics.

APY 449 Mayan Civilization: Past and Present

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Explores Mayan civilization from its earliest beginnings to the current situation. The seminar begins with the pre-classic roots of Mayan civilization, then moves through classic splendor, post-classic turbulence, the European invasion, and into the current period of rebellion and ethnic resurgence. Students select a particular geographically and linguistically distinctive Mayan population and trace the group historically through artifacts, written records, life histories, and ethnographies. Student activities include active class participation in discussions and preparation of an annotated bibliography on a key aspect of Mayan civilization.

APY 457 Evolutionary Biology of Humans

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  one course with substantial evolutionary biology content
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Explores the application of evolutionary theory and method to modern human populations. Among the topics are heritability of biological and behavioral variables, developmental biology and natural selection, biological distance, biogeography and race, adaptive theory, adaptation to environmental change, and such emergent problems as crowding, hunger, epidemic disease, and global warming. Specific topics may vary depending on developments within the profession.

APY 474 Urban Anthropology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Analyzes urban communities in cross-cultural perspective, the role of cities in large social cultural systems, utility of anthropological techniques in understanding complex communities, and contemporary American urban adaptations and research.

APY 475 Ecology and Cultural Adaptation

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Introduces ecological anthropology or cultural ecology. Examines interrelations of social and cultural systems with the biotic and physical environment, including exploitative and subsistence systems (such as land use, land tenure, and settlement patterns).

APY 476 Health Care in the United States

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Explores the culture and social organization of health-care systems in the United States, including mainstream allopathic medicine and nursing, as well as more �alternative healing� modalities, such as faith healing, chiropractic, �New Age� healing, and so forth. Gives students a specifically anthropological understanding of health care in American society. This anthropological perspective draws attention to the many diverse components of health care in the United States, from high-tech advanced medical science to faith healing.

APY 477 Topics in Medical Anthropology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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The content of this course is variable and therefore it is repeatable for credit. The University Grade Repeat Policy does not apply.

APY 480 Collapse of Civilization

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Explores the causes of societal disintegration from an archaeological perspective. The ancient Mayan and pre-Aztec civilizations of Mexico, as well as that of ancient Shang China, are the focus for analyzing various factors that might lead to the destruction of complex social and political systems.

APY 482 Peruvian Culture/Society

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Studies the complex society of Peru as the focus of social anthropological analysis. Considers the country's history and ethnohistory, economy, organization, development problems, and contemporary violence. Requires no knowledge of Spanish.

APY 488 Kinship and Social Structure

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines kinship and family patterns in simple and complex societies. Also examines the role of kinship in society and the human quality of kinship patterns, including plural marriage, divorce, the incest taboo, gender, clans, lineages, and joint families.

APY 490 Economic Anthropology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Examines the production, distribution, exchange, and consumption systems of non-Western peoples; the integration of economic systems with other aspects of culture; and problems of underdeveloped areas.

APY 492 Political Anthropology

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Considers systems of government and control in the non-Western world, emphasizing tribal organization. Focuses upon law and warfare, the two most important political functions or tasks engaged in by a political community.

APY 494 Senior Seminar

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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The content of this course is variable and therefore it is repeatable for credit. The University Grade Repeat Policy does not apply.

Topics vary. Seniors have registration priority.

APY 495 Supervised Teaching

Credits:  1 - 6
Semester:
Prerequisites:  Permission of Instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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APY 498 Internship

Credits:  1 - 6
Semester:
Prerequisites:  permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  TUT

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Students wishing to complete an internship with a host agency may register for this course with the agreement of the agency supervisor and the faculty advisor.

APY 499 Independent Study and Research

Credits:  1 - 8
Semester:
Prerequisites:  permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM/TUT

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Updated: Apr 12, 2006 11:03:42 AM