Geography

Department of Geography

College of Arts and Sciences
105 Wilkeson Quad
Ellicott Complex
North Campus
Buffalo, NY 14261

Phone: 716.645.2722
Fax: 716.645.2329
Web: www.geog.buffalo.edu

Alan D. McPherson
Chair

Michael Woldenberg
Director of Undergraduate Studies

About the Program

Geography is primarily concerned with the locations and arrangements in space of human and natural phenomena, and with the interrelationships between people, businesses, public and social institutions, and their spatial environments. Geographers, therefore, are interested in such topics as human perception and behavior; the location of industry and business; mobility and transportation; urban growth and development; regional planning and policy study; physical and ecological environments; interactions of people and places over space and time; and the diffusion of information, commodities, and ideas.

Over the years, geography has developed four major traditions or approaches:

1) The spatial organization tradition investigates the positions of places or regions, and the distances, directions, interdependencies, and movements between them. These elements produce geographic patterns on the land and these patterns are evidence of spatial laws.

2) The earth system tradition focuses on the study of earth surface processes and geographic patterns relating to climate, landforms, soils, and the living world.

3) Environmental/societal dynamics studies the interrelationships and interactions between society and the natural and modified environment.

4) Area study takes as its objective the description of places, the spatially correlated similarities among places within a region, and the differences and interactions between regions or between a place and its surrounding region.

Geographers represent geographic space with maps, and thus geographers are very concerned with map use and design. The design of maps may often involve the application of cognitive psychology, statistics, and mathematics. The development of Geographic Information Systems has revolutionized the mapping of statistics and made possible the rapid production of specialized maps for decision makers.

Because of these wide interests, geographers must acquire training in quantitative methods, field techniques, computer technology, data handling and analysis, cartographic displays and production, and written and verbal communication skills. In addition, interdisciplinary work often is necessary in such areas as economics, computer science, psychology, geology, mathematics, marketing, statistics, information systems, and environmental sciences.

Degree Options

Joint and double majors with other departments in the university are encouraged. Students interested in joint programs are advised to obtain up-to-date information from the departments involved.

Students interested in geography are strongly encouraged to visit the department and talk with the director of undergraduate studies. Once students have been accepted as majors, they work with a department advisor and a program is worked out to suit individual student�s needs and goals.

Transfer Policy

Prospective majors who have taken geography courses at another school that they believe are equivalent to courses offered by this department should contact the director of undergraduate studies to petition for acceptance of transfer geography credits.

Geography - B.A.

Acceptance Criteria

Minimum GPA of 2.0 overall.
Minimum GPA of 2.0 in the prerequisite courses.

Prerequisite Courses

Any two geography courses.

Required Courses

GEO 101 Earth Systems Science I
GEO 102 Introduction to Human Geography or GEO 103* Geography of Economic Systems
GEO 120 Maps and Mapping
GEO 410 Univariate Statistics in Geography (or another approved statistics course)
One computer science course
One 300/400-level course from each of the following specialty areas: Earth Systems Science; GIS and cartography; international business and world trade; urban and regional analysis

*GEO 103 is mandatory for the five-year BA/MA program.

Summary
Total required credit hours for the major...39

See Baccalaureate Degree Requirements for general education and remaining university requirements.

Recommended Sequence of Program Requirements

FIRST YEAR
Fall�General education requirements
Spring�General education requirements

SECOND YEAR
Fall�Two or three lower-level geography courses (choose from GEO 101; GEO 102 or GEO 103; and GEO 120)
Spring�One computer science course, two or three geography electives

THIRD YEAR
Fall�GEO 410, two or three geography electives
Spring�Two or three geography electives

FOURTH YEAR
Fall and Spring�Remaining geography electives

Concentrations

Students pursuing a concentration complete all of the general geography requirements (above) as well as additional requirements for the concentration. To find out more about the concentrations, please see the following descriptions and/or contact the department.

Required Courses

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS) AND CARTOGRAPHY
GEO 101; GEO 102 or GEO 103; GEO 120, GEO 381, GEO 410, GEO 411, GEO 481, and GEO 485
Two of the following: GEO 389, GEO 420, GEO 450-GEO 453, GEO 462, GEO 464, GEO 479, GEO 483, GEO 488, GEO 489
One 300/400-level course in each of the other three specialty areas
One of the following pairs of math courses: MTH 121 and MTH 122, or MTH 141 and MTH 142
Two computer courses: CSE 113 and CSE 114

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS AND WORLD TRADE
GEO 101; GEO 102 or GEO 103; GEO 120, GEO 330, GEO 333, GEO 334, GEO 410, GEO 411, GEO 419, GEO 425, GEO 460
One 300/400-level course in both the Earth Systems Science and GIS/cartography areas
ECO 181, ECO 182, ENG 101;
One computer science course
Two of the following: MGA 201, MGB 301, MGF 301, MGM 301, writing/communication courses, foreign language courses

Earth Systems Science
GEO 101; GEO 102 or GEO 103; GEO 120, GEO 410
One 300/400-level course in each of the three other specialty areas
Six courses from the following: GEO 106, GEO 200, GEO 201, GEO 345, GEO 347, GEO 348, GEO 350, GEO 352, GEO 355, GEO 356, GEO 440, GEO 444, GEO 449, GEO 454, GEO 470, GEO 479, GEO 483, GEO 499
CSE 101 or CSE 113; GLY 103 or GLY 108; MTH 121 or MTH 141
Two semesters of biology, chemistry, or physics

URBAN AND REGIONAL ANALYSIS
CSE 113 and ECO 182
GEO 101, GEO 102, GEO 103, GEO 120, GEO 366, GEO 367, GEO 410, GEO 411, GEO 419, GEO 425, and GEO 460
One 300/400-level course in both the GIS/Cartography and Earth Systems Science areas
One of the following: GEO 440, GEO 490, GEO 499

Geography - B.A./M.A.

Specialization in International Economic and Business Geography

Acceptance Criteria

Minimum GPA of 3.0 in the prerequisite courses.
Two letters of recommendation from instructors of the prerequisite courses.

Advising Notes

Acceptance to the MA portion of this program requires submission of GRE scores. We recommend this be done between your third and fourth year.

Most of these courses are only offered once each year; therefore, students need to plan ahead to be certain that they enroll in the required courses during the appropriate semesters.

Students must apply to the department for full-time graduate status by fall of the fifth year.

Prerequisite Courses

GEO 103 and three additional geography courses.

Required Courses

ECO 181 Macroeconomics
ECO 182 Microeconomics
GEO 120 Maps and Mapping
GEO 330 Dynamics of International Business
GEO 333 Bases of World Commerce
GEO 334 International Environment & Commercial Problems
GEO 366 Urban Geography
GEO 389 Business Geographics
GEO 410 Univariate Statistics in Geography
GEO 411 Multivariate Statistics in Geography
GEO 419 Transportation and Society
GEO 425 Industrial Geography
GEO 490 Geography Honors Program
GEO 502 Survey Methods in Geography
GEO 531 Introduction to International Trade
GEO 625 Industrial Geography
GEO 631 Project Guidance or GEO 639 Special Topics in Trade
GEO 632 Macro Issues in Trade
GEO 634 World Regional and Cultural Systems
GEO 636 Spatial Problems of Multinational Corporations
GEO 640 Asia-Pacific Economy
GEO 680 Technology, Globalization, and Development
One approved undergraduate-level elective
Two approved graduate-level electives

Summary
Total required credit hours for the undergraduate portion...46
Total required credit hours for the BA/MA...79

See Baccalaureate Degree Requirements for general education and remaining university requirements.

Refer to the Graduate School's policies and procedures manual for requirements for master�s degree candidates.

Upon completion of undergraduate program requirements and all MA requirements, the combined degree is conferred at the end of the fifth year.

Recommended Sequence of Program Requirements

FIRST YEAR
Fall�Four general education courses or electives
Spring�Four general education courses or electives

SECOND YEAR
Fall�ECO 181, GEO 103, GEO 330, two general education courses or electives
Spring�ECO 182, GEO 120, GEO 333, two general education courses or electives

THIRD YEAR
Fall�GEO 366, GEO 389, GEO 410, one general education course or elective
Spring�GEO 334, GEO 411, GEO 419, GEO 425, one general education course or elective

FOURTH YEAR
Fall�GEO 490, GEO 531, GEO 632, one general education course or approved undergraduate-level elective
Spring�GEO 625, GEO 636, one general education course or approved undergraduate-level elective, one approved graduate-level elective

FIFTH YEAR
Fall�GEO 502, GEO 634, GEO 680, one approved graduate-level elective
Spring�GEO 631 or GEO 639; GEO 640

Geography - Minor

Acceptance Criteria

Minimum GPA of 2.0 overall.

MINORS
Earth Systems Science
General Geography
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Cartography
Geography of International Business and World Trade
Urban and Regional Analysis

For detailed information, stop in at the main office, 105 Wilkeson, or contact the director of undergraduate studies.

Course Descriptions

GEO 100 Geographic Perspectives and World Issues

Credits:  3
Semester: F Sp
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines the geography of the emerging global village, especially the stress between the increasing globalization of human societies and natural habitats, and their idiosyncratic traits. Deeply rooted in today�s changing world, the course surveys regions of the world and the contemporary issues facing them.

GEO 101 Earth Systems Science I

Credits:  3
Semester: F Sp
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines the local to global interactions of Earth systems including solar energy, air, water, weather, climate, landforms, soils, plants, and ecosystems. Presents the linkages between Earth systems operation and current environmental problems.

GEO 102 Introduction to Human Geography

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines contemporary issues from a spatial perspective, including population and demography, cities and urban development, global economic relations, political trends, social problems, and the environment.

GEO 103 Geography of Economic Systems

Credits:  3
Semester: F Sp
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Economic geographers examine the many local, regional, and national problems and policy issues that characterize a world economy in rapid transition. Gives emphasis to the behavioral and complex processes and institutional structures that are associated with economic landscapes and organizations, patterns of growth and development, and spatial transformations.

GEO 106 Earth Systems Science II

Credits:  4
Semester: F Sp
Prerequisites:  GEO 101
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC/LAB

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Examines past, present and future global warming by considering causes of warming, methods of modeling the future, predicted environmental and social impacts, and possible solutions.

GEO 120 Maps and Mapping

Credits:  3
Semester: F Sp
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Studies map reading and interpretation, including uses of air photos for geographic research and everyday life.

GEO 200 The Ocean World

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Introduces oceanography and its relationship to environmental, economic, and strategic aspects. Considers the impact of humans on the ecological balance among the oceans, continents, atmosphere, and living things, as well as ports, chips and maritime law.

GEO 201 Disasters: A Study of Hazards

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Studies natural and human-induced disasters; such as storms, earthquakes, floods, fires, chemical pollution, and impact of war on the physical and social environment. Utilizes case studies, slides, and films.

GEO 231 U.S. Contemporary Problems

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines spatial structures and growth processes involving contemporary spatial dynamics of the American socioeconomic systems.

GEO 330 Dynamics of International Business

Credits:  3
Semester: F
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Explores dynamics of the international environment of trade and direct investment, including problems and decision-making strategies associated with international corporations.

GEO 333 Bases of World Commerce

Credits:  3
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Involves a theoretical and empirical study of the spatial aspects of commodity flows among countries and regions; also examines conditions leading to trade, and to barriers to the movement of goods.

GEO 334 International Environments and Commercial Problems

Credits:  3
Semester: F Sp
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Helps students who are preparing for careers in international business gain a better understanding of the cultural differences among peoples. Emphasizes the problems that these differences may pose for business travelers, and suggests the attitudes and types of information that such individuals must acquire if they are to work effectively in foreign areas.

GEO 345 Water Resources

Credits:  3
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  GEO 101 or GLY 101 or permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines the occurrence, use, management, and conservation of water and water resources in the U.S. and around the world. The course further discusses the environmental, economic, and social implications of floods, droughts, dams, water usage, and waste water, as well as current issues in water quality, water pollution, and water resource regulation.

GEO 347 Climatic Geomorphology

Credits:  3
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  GEO 101 or GLY 103
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Studies geomorphic processes and landform development in humid, arid, periglacial, and glacial landscapes; also considers the impact of climatic change on landform development.

GEO 348 Landform Development

Credits:  3
Semester: F
Prerequisites:  GEO 101 or GLY 103
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Studies plate tectonics, structure, volcanism, minerals, rocks, weathering, slope development, and fluvial and coastal geomorphology.

GEO 350 Landford Field and Laboratory Techniques

Credits:  4
Semester: F
Prerequisites:  GEO 101 or GLY 101
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC/LAB

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Examines the theory and application of field and laboratory equipment used to measure landforms and the processes that shape them. This hands-on course introduces students to (1) field-based techniques used in topographic surveying; global positioning systems; measurements of precipitation, runoff, and stream flow; stream corridor stability; and soils; and (2) laboratory-based techniques used in experimental geomorphology.

GEO 352 Introduction to Soils

Credits:  3
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  GEO 101
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Introduces the concepts of soil science, composition and classification of soils, and the spatial distribution of major soil categories. Analyzes soil properties, soil/plant relationships, nutrients, land management practices, and ecological and engineering problems.

GEO 356 Environmental Change

Credits:  3
Semester: F
Prerequisites:  GEO 101 or BIO 200 or GLY 101 or permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Explores the diversity of forest ecosystems in terms of their structure, composition, and function. Considers how forestry practices can minimize their impact on biodiversity. Field and lab-work develop the ability to recognize and reconstruct forest dynamics using forest structure and tree-ring analysis.

GEO 366 Urban Systems Geography

Credits:  3
Semester: F
Prerequisites:  GEO 103 or permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Studies the growth dynamics of cities and urban systems using modeling approaches. Investigates the interaction among cities, formation of urban hierarchies, and internal spatial structure of cities in general; including industrial, commercial, and residential patterns.

GEO 367 Urban Social Geography

Credits:  3
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Explores the urban hierarchy and relations between cities as the internal functions (and disfunctions) of cities. Focuses on social problems, economic processes, political forces, and the built environment in contemporary urban life.

GEO 381 Cartography

Credits:  4
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  GEO 120
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC/LAB

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Systematically introduces cartography, elements of mapping and map analysis, statistical maps and their use, drafting, and computer graphics techniques.

GEO 386 Cartographic Internship

Credits:  1 - 9
Semester:
Prerequisites:  GEO 381, permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  TUT

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Involves intensive training in cartography at a mapping facility.

GEO 389 Business Geographics

Credits:  4
Semester: F
Prerequisites:  GEO 103, GEO 120
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC/LAB

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Explores the application of GIS in business. Storage and spatial referencing of data are two processes that need to be carried out to make any business successful. GIS can help not only in these tasks, but also in identification of patterns and relationships that can save companies money and increase profit.

GEO 410 Univariate Statistics in Geography

Credits:  4
Semester: F
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC/LAB

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Introduces use of statistical techniques in geography, including binomial and normal distributions, and hypothesis testing.

GEO 411 Multivariate Statistics in Geography

Credits:  3
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  GEO 410 or equivalent
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Studies analysis of variance, simple and multiple regression, and factor and cluster analysis; introduces SPSS computing.

GEO 412 Geography of Health

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Introduces a variety of geographic dimensions of health. Topics range from geographic variations in disease to geographic and socioeconomic differences in access to health care. Students gain an appreciation for the sizable geographic differences in disease rates, in surgical procedures and outcomes, and in health care access. Readings are taken from the current literature so that students are up-to-date with respect to the latest findings in this rapidly changing field.

GEO 418 Population Geography

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines recent trends in population redistribution in the United States. Considers methods for producing population estimates and forecases, and explores application of population analysis to the planning problems of government and business.

GEO 419 Transportation and Society

Credits:  3
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  GEO 102 or GEO 103 or GEO 410 or permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Studies evolution of the U.S. transportation system. Examines contemporary transportation problems; including provision of transportation, transport networks, transport flows, urban transportation, logistics, and information technologies. Also considers transport and urban forms.

GEO 420 Transportation and Spacial Information

Credits:  4
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  GEO 481
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC/LAB

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Overview of data used in transportation, including travel behavior surveys, vehicle locations, and traffic information. The course also covers GIS-T data models, data accuracy, primary and secondary data collection and storage approaches, geo-processing of network data, principles of Intelligent Transportation Systems, and location-based services.

GEO 425 Industrial/Business Geography

Credits:  3
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  GEO 102 or GEO 103 or permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines theoretical and empirical interpretations of manufacturing location, global patterns of production and decision making of the firm, and locational change and interdependence of world regions.

GEO 426 Senior Geography Seminar

Credits:  3
Semester: F Sp
Prerequisites:  senior standing in geography; for majors only
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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The content of this course is variable and therefore it is repeatable for credit. The University Grade Repeat Policy does not apply.

Topics vary each semester.

GEO 430 Applied Urban Geography

Credits:  3 \ 1
Semester:
Prerequisites:  GEO 410 and introduction to ArcView
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC/LAB

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Explores spatial structure of urban and metropolitan areas. Topics include (1) the changing form of urban areas over time, (2) the behavior of people that gives rise to particular urban forms, (3) the ways in which the internal structure of cities affects individual and group behavior and welfare, and (4) the various ways in which people perceive and interact with their environment. The lab provides students the opportunity to analyze basic data, using cartographic and statistical modes of analysis and the resources of the Geographical Information and Analysis Lab (GIAL). Students in the lab must take the lecture portion concurrently; however, students in the lecture may elect not to take the lab for additional credit.

GEO 435 Conservation Biogeography

Credits:  3
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  GEO 101 or GLY 101 or BIO 200 or permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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What is biodiversity, what are its values, and what factors threaten it? What techniques enable us to effectively manage and protect species, communities and landscapes? Theory is supplemented with case studies, and practical methods are emphasized throughout. Assignments and a fieldtrip explore the protection of local endangered species.

GEO 440 Geographic Internship

Credits:  3
Semester: F Sp
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  TUT

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The content of this course is variable and therefore it is repeatable for credit. The University Grade Repeat Policy does not apply.

For advanced students. Involves a work opportunity in a local governmental agency or firm. See the director of undergraduate studies for more information.

GEO 444 Advanced Earth System Science

Credits:  3
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  GEO 101 or permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Presents and discusses concepts, theories and applications in Earth System Science investigating the complexity of physical, chemical, and biological processes in geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and ecosphere. Fundamental understanding of the Earth system includes emphasizing these dynamic processes and their interaction that extend over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The lecture aims to create an interdisciplinary learning environment that supports understanding and communicating with other disciplines about the complex environmental processes. Possible impact and solutions to local, regional, and global environmental problems are assessed through modeling scenarios of changes in biogeochemical cycles.

GEO 445 Restoration Ecology

Credits:  3
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  GEO 356 or GEO 470 or BIO 309 or permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Restoration ecology is the art and science of repairing lands that have become damaged by natural or human disturbance. Examines ecological and social reasons for restoration. Focuses on how to identify and repair the key physical, chemical and biotic components of damaged ecosystems. Case studies and a field trip help are used to develop the theories and methods.

GEO 449 Fluvial Geomorphology

Credits:  3
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  GEO 347 or GEO 348 or GLY 312 or permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Examines the origin, geometry, water flow, and sediment transport associated with streams and rivers, and how these processes and forms vary in time and space. Places particular emphasis on the analytic description of physical processes, the adjustment of rivers to natural and human-induced disturbances, the interactions between fluvial processes, water quality and aquatic habitat, and emerging areas of research.

GEO 451 Special Topics in Cartography

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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Advanced seminar. Topics vary each semester. Requires independent projects in the field being covered.

GEO 454 Soils Laboratory Methods

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  GEO 352
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC/LAB

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Studies soils laboratory techniques; involves field work (soil sampling) and soil surveying.

GEO 460 Geography of Development

Credits:  3
Semester: F
Prerequisites:  GEO 103 or GEO 330 or GEO 333 or permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Reviews the literature dealing with the spatial and regional processes of economic development in the last half of the twentieth century. Emphasizes the influence of the evolving global economy upon the geographic patterns of economic development.

GEO 462 Network and Location Analysis

Credits:  4
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  GEO 481 and MTH 121
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC/LAB

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Examines the basic theories and concepts behind transportation networks, their structure and operation as well as their need in different applications such as location theory. Approaches topics from both a theoretical and a GIS perspective. There will be a weekly laboratory to provide hands-on experience in the different topics.

GEO 464 Mobility and Flows

Credits:  4
Semester: F
Prerequisites:  GEO 419 and GEO 481
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC/LAB

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Studies the human decision-making process underlying spatial mobility that results in the creation of patterns and daily routines. Covers the different environments and theories involved in the process, as well as the modeling techniques that have been used, emphasizing the application of Geographic Information Systems.

GEO 470 Integrated Environmental Management

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  GEO 101 or permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Introduces an integrated framework for natural resource management that addresses biophysical, social, and economic issues affecting natural resources such as water, soil, air, plant and animal communities and their use through agriculture, forestry, and fishery. The multidisciplinary approach equips the participants with the necessary tools and techniques to develop sound management policy and practice at the watershed scale from small watersheds to large basins. Outlines methods for problem definition and goal setting to elect appropriate and effective management strategies and procedures for monitoring and implementation.

GEO 475 Landscape Modeling with GIS

Credits:  3
Semester: F
Prerequisites:  GEO 481 or permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Utilizes concepts and software tools to appropriately analyze geo-spatial data and model environmental processes. The course uses exercises related to physical processes, but also presents and discusses methods and examples in the fields of environmental science, ecology and human geography.

GEO 479 GIS and Environmental Modeling

Credits:  4
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC/LAB

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Emphasizes GIS applications in environmental research. Methodology design is the primary focus and is discussed under the following topics: direct application of GIS functions, integrating GIS with statistics, and interfacing GIS and environmental models. Introduces case studies. The last section of the course covers advanced topics in GIS research. Lab exercises familiarize students with basic operation of GIS projects.

GEO 481 Geographic Information Systems

Credits:  4
Semester: F Sp
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC/LAB

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Introduces students to the various uses of computers in geography, including spatial data handling. Covers principles of geographic information systems (GIS) and the basic internal operations of a GIS. Introduces students to the geographic information systems operating in the Geographic Information and Analysis Laboratory.

GEO 483 Remote Sensing

Credits:  4
Semester:
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC/LAB

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Examines principles, characteristics, and applications of remote sensing; also provides practical training in the methods and techniques of interpreting and analyzing aerospace remotely sensed data.

GEO 484 GIS Applications

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  GEO 481
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Explores capabilities for micro- and minicomputer applications of geographic information systems, including such topics as data volumes, data partitioning, and database construction and maintenance. Explores applications to urban-planning and natural-resource management using ARC/INFO.

GEO 485 Cartography and Geographic Visualization

Credits:  4
Semester:
Prerequisites:  GEO 120 or GEO 381 or permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC/REC

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Examines current issues in cartography and geographic visualization (GVIS), focusing on the use of maps and other visual representations to facilitate thinking, problem solving, and decision making in geography. Lectures focus on the conceptual background and applications of cartography and geovisualization; including visual functions and forms, map and web interface design, animation, multimedia, color, sound, multivariate displays, and 3D visual modeling. Lab sessions provide hands-on experience in constructing basic cartographic visualization tools with various hardware and software packages.

GEO 486 Spatial Decision-Support Systems

Credits:  3
Semester:
Prerequisites:  GEO 481
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Adds the spatial element to decision-support systems by integrating analytic modeling and GIS. Also considers issues in system design and implementation.

GEO 487 Thematic Cartography

Credits:  4
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  None
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC

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Applies formal principles of graphic design with skills of computer and manual cartographic production. Introduces principles and skills of computer-assisted cartographic production, and of photographic and digital-enhancement techniques that may be incorporated in the map production process.

GEO 488 GIS Design

Credits:  4
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  GEO 481
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC/LAB

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Emphasizes problems and methods for defining GIS user needs and the development cycle. Adapts methods and software engineering to the GIS planning process. Topics include product identification, data sources, system selection, and implementation scheduling.

GEO 489 GIS Algorithms and Data Structures

Credits:  4
Semester: Sp
Prerequisites:  GEO 481
Corequisites:  None
Type:  LEC/LAB

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Examines the data models for geographic information systems. Student programming projects emphasize alternative methods of implementing common GIS operations.

GEO 490 Geography Honors Program

Credits:  3
Semester: F Sp
Prerequisites:  permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  TUT

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Students who have completed at least 96 credit hours and who have a minimum GPA of 3.5 in geography and overall are eligible to participate in the honors program. See the director of undergraduate studies for more information.

GEO 496 Children's Urban Geography

Credits:  4
Semester: F
Prerequisites:  One geography course or permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  SEM

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A service-learning course involving a seminar focused on the cutting-edge field of children�s geographies and the opportunity to conduct community service and qualitative research projects with low-income children in Buffalo through an after-school program in the city. Dual-listed with GEO 596, the course is open to undergraduates and graduate students who are interested in critical urban geographies, children and education, creative hands-on qualitative research, and community service.

GEO 499 Independent Study

Credits:  1
Semester: F Sp
Prerequisites:  permission of instructor
Corequisites:  None
Type:  TUT

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The content of this course is variable and therefore it is repeatable for credit. The University Grade Repeat Policy does not apply.

Updated: Apr 12, 2006 11:04:17 AM